Historical Research

To review the history of cervical screening and colposcopy. To understand the role of HR-HPV in the development of cervical premalignancy and malignancy. To understand the potential of HPV vaccination and the uses of HPV testing in reducing the burden of cervical cancer.

Ethical issues

HPV infection is common, so should women with only transient HPV infection be informed of their diagnoses, given that disclosures provide little benefit and may cause significant emotional harm? HPV is related to other premalignant and malignant diseases of the lower genital tract and oropharynx affecting males and females. Should boys therefore be also offered HPV vaccination?

What is MySmear?

Cervical cancer presents a significant global health burden, with an estimated 266 000 deaths and 528 000 new cases worldwide recorded in 2012. Approximately 85% of cervical cancer cases occur in developing countries and they comprise 12% of all female cancers. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is necessary, but not sufficient for cervical cancer, and it is also a factor in vaginal, vulval, anal, penile and oropharyngeal cancers.

Subtypes 16 and 18 (HPV-16 and HPV-18) have been found to be the most pathogenic of the high-risk HPV types. Indeed together they account for 70-80% cervical cancers, 40-50% of vulval and oropharyngeal cancers and 70-80% of anal cancers.

Information data for underdeveloped countries has not been reported which we undertake alongside are other face of the campaigns to introduce the awareness for women in the highest age range group.

Having your regular smear test (also known as cervical screening) is a very important part of being a woman.

Cervical screening isn't a test for cancer; it's a test to check the health of the cells of the cervix. Most women's test results show that everything is normal, but for around 1 in 20 women the test shows some abnormal changes in the cells of the cervix.

In some cases, the abnormal cells need to be removed so they can't become cancerous.

Cervical Cancer

Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women. Furthermore, it is the most common cancer in women aged 15-44 years.

Cancer prevention

Regular preventive care is one of the most important ways to maintain your health over time. If you wait to see a doctor only when you notice a problem, it may be too late. Cervical cancer screening is especially important for women's health. Queens Clinic recommends Smear and HPV virus test every year.

Why should we have annual Smear

Smear test can detect early precancerous changes on the cervix. An abnormal smear means abnormal cells have been identified on your cervix. Depending on the type of cells found, doctor may recommend repeating the test or removing the cells by various methods Women should have 6 monthly Smear and HPV test if she was treated from abnormal cervical cells.

When can I have MySmear?

Queens Clinic, London Gynaecology Clinic and London Medi Health recommends that Smear to be carried out every year starting year one after first sexual intercourse.

Cervical Screening

Cervical Screening varies between one country to other for starting at age of 20, some at age of 25, but we believe, that women's age does not matter. What matters most, it is when woman become sexual active and that is the starting point for planning annual cervical cancer screening. We believe, that 1 case of cancer cervix is too many. When symptoms appear related to cervical cancer, unfortunately most of these cases are of invasive cancer which by our program we are trying to avoid. A good coverage of cervical smear will reach for at least 80% of female population at high risk of developing cervical cancer.

How Smear test is carried out?

The technique involves the use of a brush to take a sample of cervical cells that is then placed in a preservative fluid in order to generate a suspension of cells. The fluid and suspension is centrifuged in the laboratory and thin layer of cells deposited on the slide. Checked by experienced doctors or technicians to identify any changes and based on the classification of changes report will be provided with recommendations. If there is a change in a cell the second screening will be carried out using colposcopy to determine the appropriate management for women referred for abnormal cytology result.

Histology

When cytology and colposcopy confirms abnormalities a biopsy will be obtained for histology. CIN is the histological term that describes squamous premalignant change. Classically, the grading system allowed corellation with the cytological grades of dyskaryosis: CIN1, CIN2 and CIN3 correlating with mild, moderate and severe dyskaryosis.